Fluoride stress on Gladiolus

Fluoride stress on Gladiolus
Fluoride stress on Gladiolus

The most widely used fluoride bioindicator is Gladiolus. This plant is showing typical fluoride injury. However, water stress causes very similar symptoms so beware! Varieties differ enormously in sensitivity and cultivation also seems to affect response. It is best to use a known, tested variety for bioindication but surveys of mixed varieties growing in gardens can give useful information.