Effects and Implications
- Visible leaf injury and/or premature leaf die-back, which could subsequently result in reduced growth during a growing season;
- Reduced growth of sensitive species;
- Potential alterations in numbers and timing of flowering and seed production;
- Alterations of response to other environmental stresses such as drought stress
- Enhanced susceptibility to pests and diseases.
- Alterations to litter quality, which could affect decomposition