This habitat represents a range of different systems for which there is no known experimental information on the impacts of nitrogen deposition.
Since improved grasslands receive very high doses of Nitrogen in fertilisers and manures negative effects of atmospheric N deposition are not expected. In this case the atmospheric Nitrogen inputs could be considered as beneficial, providing a small additional source of 'fertiliser'.
Hedgerows can support N sensitive epiphytes. Species diversity is often restricted by the absence of a source of appropriate seed, caused by the use of highway management herbicides, and cutting restricting seed and berry production.