SO2 :: Lobaria species

Latin name: 
Lobaria spp.

Impact Type: Direct exposure to pollutant

Key Concerns:

Lobaria spp., as with other lichen species, are affected by SO2 (Hawksworth & Rose 1970a). Each species within the Lobarion may have a critical level at which point its population will begin to decline (Farmer et al. 1991a). See also Sulphur dioxide / Lichens(general)

Additional Comments:

Also sensitive to acid deposition. 

Critical Load/level: 
Habitat/ Ecosystem Type Critical Load/ Level Status Reliability Indication of exceedance Reference
Forests and semi-natural vegetation

20 µg SO2 m-3 annual mean and half-year(Oct-March) mean

UNECE, 2004 quite reliable i.e. the results of some studies are comparable

Low temperature appears to enhance the negative effects of SO2, and the lower critical level of 15 µg SO2 m-3 is used where the effective temperature sum (ETS) (i.e. the sum of temperatures) above 5oC is below 1000 degree days (d.d) (Ashmore et al., 1994).

Farmer, A.M.; Bates, J.W.; Bell, J.N.B.; Bates, (Eds) J.W.; Farmer, (Eds) A.M. 1992 Ecophysiological effects of acid rain on bryophytes and lichens Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment
Nash, T.H.; Gries, C. 2002 Lichens as bioindicators of sulfur dioxide Symbiosis 33(1) 1-21
Species group: 

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