Impact Type: Direct exposure to pollutant
Lobaria spp., as with other lichen species, are affected by SO2 (Hawksworth & Rose 1970a). Each species within the Lobarion may have a critical level at which point its population will begin to decline (Farmer et al. 1991a). See also Sulphur dioxide / Lichens(general)
Also sensitive to acid deposition.
|Habitat/ Ecosystem Type||Critical Load/ Level||Status||Reliability||Indication of exceedance||Reference|
|Forests and semi-natural vegetation||
20 µg SO2 m-3 annual mean and half-year(Oct-March) mean
|UNECE, 2004||quite reliable i.e. the results of some studies are comparable||
Low temperature appears to enhance the negative effects of SO2, and the lower critical level of 15 µg SO2 m-3 is used where the effective temperature sum (ETS) (i.e. the sum of temperatures) above 5oC is below 1000 degree days (d.d) (Ashmore et al., 1994).