SO2 :: Ferns (general)

Latin name: 
Pteridophytes

Impact Type: Direct exposure to pollutant

Key Concerns:

Studies by Lawrence & Ashenden (1993) have shown that direct exposure to SO2 (exposure to 104 µg/m3 SO2) may affect the growth and reproduction of fern species. However it should be noted that such cases only now occur in Britain in the immediate vicinity of major sources.

Additional Comments:

There is a lack of information on the relative sensitivity of different fern species.

Critical Load/level: 
Habitat/ Ecosystem Type Critical Load/ Level Status Reliability Indication of exceedance Reference
Forests and semi-natural vegetation

20 µg SO2 m-3 annual mean and half-year(Oct-March) mean

UNECE, 2004 quite reliable i.e. the results of some studies are comparable

Low temperature appears to enhance the negative effects of SO2, and the lower critical level of 15 µg SO2 m-3 is used where the effective temperature sum (ETS) (i.e. the sum of temperatures) above 5oC is below 1000 degree days (d.d) (Ashmore et al., 1994).

809
References: 
Lawrence, P.A.; Ashenden, T.W. 1993 Effects of acidic gases and mists on the reproductive capability of 3 fern species Environmental Pollution 79 267-270
Species group: 

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