Impact Type: Direct exposure to pollutant
There would appear to be little evidence to link O3 and damage to lichens communities (Balaguer et al. 1996, Bates et al. 1996, Calatayud et al. 2000, Tarhanen et al. 1997, 2000) However, Scheidegger and Schroeter (1995) did find that, under experimental conditions (180 µg m-3 day and 80 µg m-3 night), biophysical and physiological, as well as structural impairment occurred in Anaptychia ciliaris, Collema nigrescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia bitteri, Lobaria pulmonaria, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Usnea rigida.
Studies suggest that SO2 concentrations and acid deposition are the main threats to lichen populations, rather than ambient ozone levels (Bates et al. 1996, van Dobben et al. 2001).
|Critical Load/ Level|
No estimate available