Impact Type: Direct exposure to pollutant
Studies by Ashenden et al. (1990) and Lawrence & Ashenden (1993) have shown that direct exposure to NO2 may affect the growth and reproduction of fern species. It is possible that damage to some species of fern can occur at concentrations of NO2 which are low relative to concentrations known to cause damage in higher plants.
Ashenden et al (1990), set a critical level for ferns at 60 nl l-1 (ppb) NO2 in air. Reduction in shoot growth and reproduction was observed.
|Critical Load/ Level|
No estimate available